02 Economics 金融英语

发布时间:2021-06-16 02:17:49

Lecture 2
Economics

Overview
Exchange rates (U44) ? Insurance (U47) ? The business cycle (U48) ? Taxation (U49)
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Exchange rates
Why exchange rates change ? Fixed and floating rates ? Government intervention
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Exchange rate 汇率
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In finance, the exchange rates (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. It is the value of a foreign nation’s currency in terms of the home nation’s currency.

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汇率亦称“外汇行市或汇价”。一国货币兑换另 一国货币的比率,是以一种货币表示的另一种货 币的价格。
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spot exchange rate/ forward exchange rate

即期汇率/远期汇率
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The spot exchange rate refers to the current exchange rate. The forward exchange rate refers to an exchange rate that is quoted and traded today but for delivery and payment on a specific future date. 即期汇率又称现汇汇率,是买卖双方成交后,在 两个营业日之内办理外汇交割时所用的汇率。 远期汇率又称期汇汇率,是买卖双方事先约定的, 据以在未来的一定日期进行外汇交割的汇率。
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Quotations 标价
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An exchange system quotation is given by stating the number of units of "quote currency" (price currency, payment currency) that can be exchanged for one unit of "base currency" (unit currency, transaction currency). direct quotation: 1 foreign currency unit = x home currency units indirect quotation: 1 home currency unit = x foreign currency units

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直接接标价法又叫应付标价法,是以一定单位的 外国货币为标准来计算应付出多少单位本国货币。 间接标价法又称应收标价法。它是以一定单位(如 1个单位)的本国货币为标准,来计算应收若干单 位的外国货币。
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Purchasing power parity (PPP) 购买力*价
A theory which states that the rate of exchange between two currencies is in equilibrium when it exactly reflects the difference in cost of standard goods in the two countries. ? 购买力*价理论认为,长期而言,一项商 品只能有一个价格,即在不同国家购买同 一商品的成本应该是一样的;因此,当汇率 水*令各种货币的购买力相等时,汇率即 处于均衡水*。
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PPP 购买力*价
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Purchasing power parity cannot apply to immobile goods such as houses and it does not take into account distortions caused by transport costs and trade restraints, so standard goods that are widely available in both countries are used as a measure.

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比较商品在不同国家的价格时,通常采用一组有 代表性的标准商品,而不是单一商品。购买力* 价理论只适用于可透过国际贸易流通的商品,同 时忽略了一些现实因素,如运输成本、关税以及 其它交易费用。

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Inflation 通货膨胀
In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. ? 通货膨胀意指整体物价水*持续性上升。 一般性通货膨胀为货币之市值或购买力下 降,而货币贬值为两经济体间之币值相对 性降低。前者用于形容全国性的币值,而 后者用于形容国际市场上的附加价值。
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Interest rate parity 利率*价
Interest rate parity says that the spot price and the forward or futures price of a currency incorporate any interest rate differentials between the two currencies. ? 利率*价理论 (Interest Rate Parity Theory)认为两个国家利率的差额相等于 远期汇率及即期汇率之间的差额。 ? 远期差价是由两国利率差异决定的,并且 高利率国货币在期汇市场上必定贴水,低 利率国货币在期汇市场上必定升水。
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Fixed exchange rate 固定汇率
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A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency's value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

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固定汇率制是指汇率的制定以货币的含金量为基础, 形成汇率之间的固定比值。 金本位制度下的固定汇率制度——*鹗渌偷 布雷顿森林体系下的固定汇率制度——双挂钩制度 11

Triffin dilemma 特里芬难题
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The Triffin dilemma is the fundamental problem of the United States dollar's role as reserve currency in the Bretton Woods system, or more generally of a national currency as reserve currency. 美国以外的成员国必须依靠美国国际收支持续保 持逆差,不断输出美元来增加它们的国际清偿能 力(即国际储备),这势必会危及美元信用从而动 摇美元作为最主要国际储备资产的地位;反之, 美国若要维持国际收支*衡稳定美元,则其他成 员国国际储备增长又成同题,从而会发生国际清 偿能力不足进而影响到国际贸易与经济的增长。
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Federal Reserve System 联邦储备体系
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ? 美国联邦储备体系成立于1913年,是美国 的中央银行体系。由联邦储备委员会、12 家联邦储备银行及其24家分行、全国性和 州级的会员银行组成。
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Federal Reserve System
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The presidentially appointed Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, a governmental agency in Washington, D.C., The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which oversees Open Market Operations, the principle tool of national monetary policy, Twelve regional privately-owned Federal Reserve Banks located in major cities throughout the nation, which divide the nation into 12 districts, acting as fiscal agents for the U.S. Treasury, each with its own ninemember board of directors, Numerous other private U.S. member banks, which subscribe to required amounts of non-transferable stock in their regional Federal Reserve Banks,
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Federal Reserve Districts

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International Monetary Fund 国际货币基金组织
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member countries, in particular those with an impact on exchange rates and the balance of payments.

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其宗旨是促进国际金融合作,以维持汇率的安定, 扩展国际贸易,提高就业水*与实质国民所得, 并以资金供给会员国,调节会员国国际收支的暂 时性不*衡。
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Special Drawing Rights 特别提款权
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SDRs are a form of special currency created by the International Monetary Fund and its member countries to supplement the Fund's existing reserves of currencies, and are contributed to by member states.
特别提款权是由国际货币基金组织(IMF)及其成员 国所创立的一种储备资产和记帐单位,并分配给 成员国。由于其只是一种记帐单位,不是真正货 币,使用时必须先换成其他货币,不能直接用于 贸易或非贸易的支付。
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International financial institutions

国际金融机构
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International financial institutions, or IFIs, refers to financial institutions that have been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law. The best-known IFIs are the World Bank, the IMF, and the regional development banks. 国际金融机构又称国际金融组织,是指世界多数国 家的政府之间通过签署国际条约或协定而建立的、 从事国际金融业务、协调国际金融关系、维系国际 货币和信用体系正常运作的超国家金融机构。
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World Bank Group 世界银行集团
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International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) International Development Association (IDA) International Finance Corporation (IFC) Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) The term "World Bank" generally refers to the IBRD and IDA, whereas the World Bank Group(WBG) is used to refer to the institutions collectively

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Multilateral development bank 多边开发银行
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A multilateral development bank (MDB) is an institution, created by a group of countries, that provides financing and professional advising for the purpose of development. The following are usually classified as the main MDBs: World Bank African Development Bank Asian Development Bank European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Inter-American Development Bank Group 多边开发银行是一些为发展中国家的经济和社会发展活动提 供资金援助和专业咨询的机构。
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Bank for International Settlements

国际清算银行
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An international organization that fosters international monetary and financial co-operation and serves as a bank for central banks and international financial organizations. It acts as a forum for regular meetings of the central bank governors of the G10 group of major industrialized countries. The Basel Committee of the BIS sets standards and guidelines for best banking practice. 国际清算银行的宗旨是促进国际间在货币和金融事务上的 合作,同时为各国中央银行和国际金融组织提供银行服务。 国际清算银行亦是由主要工业国家组成的十国集团(G10) 中央银行行长定期会晤的场所。该行旗下的巴塞尔委员会 致力促进国际间在银行监管事务上的合作,制定并提倡良 好的银行营运准则。
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Floating exchange rates 浮动汇率
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A floating exchange rate or fluctuating exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate according to the foreign exchange market. 指一国货币的汇率并非固定,而是由自由市场的 供求关系决定的制度。 浮动汇率制按照国家是否干预外汇市场,可分为 自由浮动汇率制(又称“清洁浮动汇率制”)和 管理浮动汇率制(又称“肮脏浮动汇率制”)。
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Foreign exchange market 外汇市场
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The foreign exchange market (currency, forex, or FX) trades currencies. It lets banks and other institutions easily buy and sell currencies.

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有价证券买卖的市场。是金融市场 的主要组成部分。
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Managed float 管理浮动
Also known as "dirty" float, this is a system of floating exchange rates with central bank intervention to reduce currency fluctuations. ? 指一种官方不公开汇率目标的汇率制度。 中央银行或货币当局通过干预外汇市场以 使汇率维持在其不公开的目标水*,而目 标水*可能会随环境的变化而改变。
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Speculation 投机
Taking relatively high risks in financial markets in the hope of making large gains. ? 指在金融市场上承担较高的风险以期获得 较大收益的行为。
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Insurance (U47)
Insuring against risks ? Iife insurance and saving ? Insurance companies
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Insure
An insurer is a company selling the insurance; an insured or policyholder is the person or entity buying the insurance. ? insure (sth/yourself) (for/against sth) ◇ The painting is insured for $10 million. ◇ Companies are required to insure against accidents in the workplace. ◇ Are you adequately insured? ◇ He had insured himself against long-term illness.
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Claim 理赔
to make/put in/submit a claim ? to pay/refuse/settle a claim ◇ You can make a claim on your insurance policy. ◇ We're putting in an insurance claim for flood damage. ◇ The insurer has decided to settle (= pay) the claim. ◇ The group had to pay out $74.4 billion in damage claims (= claims for property that has been damaged).
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Broker vs agent 经纪人/代理人
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A broker is a party that mediates between a buyer and a seller. A broker who also acts as a seller or as a buyer becomes a principal party to the deal. Distinguish agent: one who acts on behalf of a principal. 保险经纪人是指代表被保险人在保险市场上选择 保险人或保险人组合,同保险方洽谈保险合同条 款并代办保险手续以及提供相关服务的中间人。 保险代理人是指根据保险人的委托,在保险人授 权的范围内代为办理保险业务,并依法向保险人 收取代理手续费的单位或者个人。
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Over-the-counter 场外交易市场
Over-the-counter (OTC) trading is to trade financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities or derivatives directly between two parties. ? 场外交易市场是指在证券交易所外进行证 券买卖的市场。它主要由柜台交易市场、 第三市场、第四市场组成。场外交易市场 是一个以议价方式和做市商*兄と 易的市场。
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Types of insurance
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Auto insurance Health insurance Accident, Sickness and Unemployment Insurance Life insurance Property insurance Liability insurance Credit insurance Other types
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Taxation of life insurance in the United States
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Premiums paid by the policy owner are normally not deductible for federal and state income tax purposes. Proceeds paid by the insurer upon death of the insured are not included in gross income for federal and state income tax purposes; however, if the proceeds are included in the "estate" of the deceased, it is likely they will be subject to federal and state estate and inheritance tax.
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Pension fund 退休基金
A fund set up to pay the pension benefits of a company's workers after retirement. ? 公司、工会、政府机构或其他组织为支付 员工退休金而设立的投资基金,资金来自 雇主以及雇员的供款。 ? 退休基金通常委托资产管理公司代为管理, 追求稳定的长期回报,每年都有数以十亿 美元计的资金投资在金融市场上,在很多 国家是最大的机构投资者。
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Lloyd's of London 劳合社
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An institution that acts as an international market for insurance (particularly marine insurance), founded in the 17th century in a coffee shop owned by Edward Lloyd. These underwriters, called names (名人) , each deposit a substantial sum with Lloyd's and accept unlimited liability. They are grouped into some syndicates to deal with Lloyd's insurance brokers, who act as intermediaries between underwriters and clients seeking insurance cover. 劳合社(Lloyd‘s)是英国最大的保险组织。劳合社就其组 织的性质而言,它不是一个保险公司,而是一个社团组织, 他不直接接受保险业务或出具保险单,所有的保险业务都 通过劳合社的会员,即劳合社承保人单独进行交易。劳合 社只是为其成员提供交易场所,并根据劳合社法案和劳合 社委员会的严格规定对他们进行管理和控制。
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Underwriting 承保, 核保,包销
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Underwriting refers to the process that a large financial service provider (bank, insurer, investment house) uses to assess the eligibility of a customer to receive their products (equity capital, insurance, mortgage or credit). Underwriting involves measuring risk exposure and determining the premium that needs to be charged to insure that risk. 核保是指保险人对投保申请进行审核,决定是否接受承保 这一风险,并在接受承保风险的情况下,确定保险费率的 过程。 承保是指保险人在投保人提出要保请求后,经审核认为符 合承保条件并同意接受投保人申请,承担保单合同规定的 保险责任的行为。

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Reinsurance 再保险
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Reinsurance is a means by which an insurance company can protect itself with other insurance companies against the risk of losses. The company requesting the cover is called the cedant. 再保险,也称分保,是保险人将其所承保的危险 责任的一部分或全部向其他保险人办理保险,即 保险的保险。或视为保险人之间的责任分担,即 分保。

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Actuary 精算师
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An actuary is a business professional who deals with the financial impact of risk and uncertainty. Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries. Actuarial science includes a number of interrelating subjects, including probability and statistics, finance, and economics . 估算保险风险和保险费的人。
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The business cycle (U48)
Expansion and contraction ? Fiscal policy ? Monetary policy
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Market economy 市场经济
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A market economy is an economy based on the division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system set by supply and demand. 市场经济(又称为自由市场经济或自由企业经济) 是一种经济体系,在这种体系下产品和服务的生 产及销售完全由自由市场的自由价格机制所引导, 市场将会透过产品和服务的供给和需求产生复杂 的相互作用,进而达成自我组织的效果。
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Business cycle 经济周期
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Regular fluctuations in overall economic activity over time. The cycle has four distinct elements: recession, recovery, peak and slowdown.
经济周期(Business cycle):也称商业周期、商 业循环、景气循环, 它是指经济运行中周期性出 现的经济扩张与经济紧缩交替更迭、循环往复的 一种现象。一个周期包含衰退(recession)、复苏 (recovery)、顶峰(peak)及放缓(slowdown)四个阶 段。
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Recession 经济衰退
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A period of static or negative economic growth. Various nations have differing definitions but the US definition of two succeeding quarters of negative growth is widely used.
指经济出现停滞或负增长的时期。不同的国家对 衰退有不同的定义,但美国以经济连续两个季度 出现负增长为衰退的定义被人们广泛使用。
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Depression 萧条
A long period of significant unemployment or underemployment of labour, capital, and land (the factors of production). This contrasts with the short-lived unemployment that characterizes a recession. ? 在经济学上,指经济周期中经济活动的严 重下降。其特征是工业生产急遽减缩,普 遍失业,建筑业严重衰退或停止增长,国 际贸易和资本流动额锐减。
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Slump 萧条,大跌
a sudden fall in sales, prices, etc: ◇ a sharp slump in share prices ◇ The sales slump continues to hit retail stores. ◇ Economists have detected signs of a slump in consumer confidence. ? a slump in demand/prices/profits/sales/spending ? a bad/deep/dramatic/prolonged/sharp slump ? SYN DECLINE
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Slump
a period when a country's economy or a business is doing very badly ◇ The US slump appears to be over. ◇ Tourism is in a slump. ◇ There are signs of an end to the six-month slump in the manufacturing sector. ? an economic/industry/a stock market slump ? a bad/deep/global/prolonged slump ? OPP BOOM
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Slump
slump (from sth) (to sth) | slump (by sth) ? to fall in price, value etc. suddenly and by a large amount: ◇ The share price slumped from more than ?3 to ?1. ◇ Sales in shopping centres slumped 35%. ◇ The company's operating profits slumped by a half.
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Trough 波谷
(n.)a period of time when the level of sth is low, especially a time when a business or the economy is not growing ◇ The rate fell to a trough of 3% last year. ◇ The pension fund invested in bonds to avoid the peaks and troughs of the stock market. ? OPP PEAK ? (v.) if a price, a rate, a decrease, etc. troughs it reaches its lowest level: ◇ Analysts believe that interest rates have troughed at 4%.
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Fiscal policy 财政政策
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budgetary policies through which a government influences the economy, such as changes in taxation and government spending. ? 指政府通过调整税收和政府支出来影 响经济的预算政策。通过财政支出与 税收政策来调节总需求。
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Government expenditure 政府开支
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Government spending or government expenditure is classified by economists into three main types. Government purchases of goods and services for current use are classed as government consumption. Government purchases of goods and services intended to create future benefits, such as infrastructure investment or research spending, are classed as government investment. Government expenditures that are not purchases of goods and services, and instead just represent transfers of money, such as social security payments, are called transfer payments.
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Monetary policy 货币政策
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Government policy that deals with total money supply and the general level of interest rates. It has a direct effect on the overall level of economic activity and inflation. Governments often delegate monetary policy implementation to central banks.

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指调控货币供应总量和利率水*的政府政策。货 币政策对宏观经济活动和通货膨胀可产生直接的 影响。政府通常将执行货币政策的权力授予中央 银行。
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Taxation (U49)
Direct taxes ? Indirect taxes ? Non-payment of tax
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Tax
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basic/basic-rate/high/higher-rate/low tax to impose/levy a tax to abolish/cut/lift/reduce/remove (a) tax to increase/put up/raise taxes to avoid/escape/evade tax a tax advisor/consultant a tax authority/office

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Tax
Shares in quoted companies are taxed at 40%. ? You will be taxed on all your income. ? Companies are more heavily taxed in this country than in others.
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Direct taxes 直接税
In the US, businesses also pay income tax. ? In the UK companies do not pay capital gains tax(CGT), but in the US they do. ? death duty (BrE) (AmE estate tax) ? corporation tax (BrE) (AmE corporate income tax) ? National Insurance (abbr NI)
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Indirect taxes 间接税
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VAT 增值税 :政府对经营厂商在生产和销售某商品时新增加的价值所课 征的税。通常计算的方法是:售方首先计算出其对售出货物所征收的税 款总额,然后再计算出其对购进货物时所付出的税款总额;其所征税款 与所付税款之差额即为其纯纳税义务。 sales tax 营业税 :营业税是从价税,按照“商品价值”(即货币价值)来对 可征税的商品收取费用。它们按照商业活动的环节归类——生产、批发 或零售。它们是美国大多数州及加拿大各省税收岁入的重要组成部分。 Excise tax 消费税:消费税是以特定消费品为课税对象所征收的一种税, 属于流转税的范畴。在对货物普遍征收增值税的基础上,选择少数消费 品再征收一道消费税,目的是为了调节产品结构,引导消费方向,保证 国家财政收入。 Tariff (customs duty) 关税:商品通过国间边界时征收的一种税。通常征 收关税的对象是进口货物,其中可能是指对所有的外国商品征税或者只 对在境外生产的商品征税。关税为国家财政收入和地方工业保护提供了 有力支持。通过提高进口价格,可鼓励国内的生产者提高其商品的价格, 或者利用税收优势制订较低的商品价格,从而吸引更多的消费者。
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Multinational corporation 跨国公司
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A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) or transnational corporation (TNC) is an corporation/enterprise that manages production establishments located in at least two countries. 联合国跨国公司委员会认为跨国公司应具备以下 三要素:第一,跨国公司是指一个工商企业,组 成这个企业的实体在两个或两个以上的国家内经 营业务,而不论其采取何种法律形式经营,也不 论其在哪一经济部门经营;第二,这种企业有一 个中央决策体系,因而具有共同的政策,此等政 策可能反映企业的全球战略目标;第三,这种企 业的各个实体分享资源、信息以及分担责任。 55

Tax havens 避税港,避税天堂
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避税港是指对跨国纳税人提供低税、免税或给予大量税收 优惠的国家和地区。 无税避税港。不征个人所得税、公司所得税、资本利得税 和财产税,如百慕大群岛、巴哈马、瓦努阿图、开曼群岛 等。 低税避税港。以低于一般国际水*的税率征收个人所得税、 公司所得税、资本利得税财产税等税种,如列支敦士登、 英属维尔京群岛、荷属安的列斯群岛、香港、澳门等。 特惠避税港。在国内税法的基础上采取特别的税收优惠措 施,如爱尔兰的香农、菲律宾的巴丹、新加坡的裕廊等地 区。 跨国纳税人常用的“避税管道”主要有:持股公司、受控 保险公司、银行金融、转让定价、许可证贸易等。
56

Liechtenstein 列支敦士登公国

57

Monaco 摩纳哥

58

Cayman Islands 开曼群岛

59

Bahamas 巴哈马

60

Declare 申报
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to announce that a share of company's profits (a dividend) will be paid to shareholders: The Board declared a dividend of 7.5 cents a share. to tell the tax authorities how much money you have earned, etc: The group declared a loss of $187 million. to tell customs officers (= at the the border of a country) that you are carrying goods on which you should pay tax: Do you have anything to declare?

61


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